Functional division based on structure and specialization
These managerial principles were used by the Catholic Church in ancient times
(b) Period of Classical Management (1880
He said, the traditional system had several defects, namely – (1) Traditional management was unscientific in nature.
(2) Coherence or coherency in various sections.
(3) Management was not recognized as an independent entity. The owner of the business was doing the management work himself.
(4) Workers were treated like machines,
Higher wages and comforts increase efficiency,
Didn’t believe it.
(5) The machinery was old. The structure was not scientific, and the working conditions were not ideal.
(6) Workers were not guided. Management was based on the principle of ‘mistake and learn’. (7) Business operators were heavily influenced by old customs, practices and beliefs.
The Industrial Revolution in England in the eighteenth century accelerated the development of manufacturing. There was a radical change in the method of production. The machine started to be used for production. This increased the production volume and reduced the size and scope of business establishments. Capital was needed more than before, two classes were created namely directors and workers. Markets grew in size. Many new ones emerged. Competition intensified. Manufacturers were forced to reduce production costs and produce quality goods, resulting in a more efficient and efficient economy. It is out of this need that the scientific method of management came into existence.
After the industrial revolution, many thinkers contributed to the development of management and they did an important task of challenging the traditional thinking and force. Nineteenth-century thinkers include James Bett and Airplane Bolton, Robert Owen, Bawes Heaney Warnumpore, Henry Robinson, Towne. Both James Bate and Matthew Robinson Bolton focused on the design validation of market research, the use of statistics, and employee and executive development. Pioneers of this era proved that improving worker welfare and working conditions increased efficiency. Emphasized the application of various theories in mathematics. Henni Bampur asserted the need for division of labor coordination and communication. Henry Binson states the importance of goals and economics. Also the idea of exchanging ideas
1930) During this second phase of management development, thinkers made management to acquire a scientific form. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Charles Babbage and other management thinkers were on the verge of collapse, some experts in the United States began to worry. These experts include Frederick Taylor, Henny Sarinashta Harrington Emerson, Karl Barth, Frank Shankar Gilworth, Mrs. Lily Gilburth and C. B. Bompson, et al. Happened since 1880. Its originator was Frederick Taylor. Hence, he is called as ‘classical father’.
According to Taylor, the main objective of management is to maximize the productivity of both the employees and the employees. But Utka is not about getting more wages, but about developmental projects for the industry and the workers. For this, he said that it is necessary to adopt the scientific method of rule of thumb method, in the scientific method, he included the selection of people for planning and work, certification, worker training, elimination of unnecessary movements and labor. The scientific method created a sense of mutual cooperation between the factory and the workers and provided efficiency.
A.D. Around 1920 there was a change in attitude. In this change, some management stage (Management Process Stage) is called Organizational Management Stage. Management Process Taylor’s Classical Management Method was developed by Mrs. Lillian Gilbert. In this phase, more emphasis is placed on planning and organizing, while the objectives of management are scrutinized. Thus, the effectiveness of management work increased Lawrence Group gave more importance to the manager. Places introduced a wage scheme that worked for the workers. Collected useful information about the product. This chart is popularly known as ‘Amdi Gashta Chart’. C Gilworth tailors motion studies. He emphasized on increasing productivity. His wife, Smt., focused his attention on the human factor, thinking about the problems he presented in the management. Herister Emerson gave more. Unit of efficiency
Its manufacturers and these two are establishing a relationship between the two.
German philosophers are known as the pioneers of organizational structure. During this period, management science was divided into two parts namely Administrative Management and Functional Management. Planning, holding and decisions were included in government management. The task of executing the various elements according to the planned plan is called executive management.
etc. S. In 1924, the first International Management Conference was organized. Due to this conference, scientific management gained an international character. Around this time, Henri Fayol was trying to improve the efficiency of the organization by introducing administrative reforms in France. He performed the departmental tasks of management work in six folds namely commercial work, financial work, security related work, cost management work. He asked the management to carry out these tasks and asserted that these principles are universal and applicable in all Patnas. Among the thinkers who are in sync with Fayol Ba’s thought and work towards management development are James Mooney and Anen Reilly, Mary Parker Follett, Hayley Innoson, L. F. Urwick, R. S. Davis, William Newman, etc. Lenin was impressed by the classical, management techniques. He used classical management method for administration. The 1920s and 1930s were the decade of development of the classical management movement. During this period, the foundations of the classical management movement were in the hands of a scholarly practitioner. He gave momentum to this movement…
During the classical management era more attention was given to industrial production but the important factor of production ‘labour’ was neglected. A change in this situation can be seen after 1930. Labor became more important than machine. The period after 1930 is described as the period of human relations. During this period, the ideas made by various thinkers in relation to management development are collectively called ‘Neoclassical Theory’. Elton Mayo is called the father of human relations movement. He called AI QUAD CAMERA Western Electric Company Shot by YOUTUBER camera
(Telephone) conducted research experiments in the machine factory during the period 1920 to 1932. He was assisted by Romless Warg and William Dickinson. Due to this experiment industrial management took a different form. The experiment disproved the idea that economic incentives led to worker efficiency. Work motivation, morale and productivity of workers do not depend only on comfort money and other material resources but on psychological resources. If workers are treated well, they get more satisfaction than the wages they receive, an atmosphere of harmony between management and workers is essential. Workers to work with others. like Therefore, it is necessary to create formal and informal groups in the factory. The conclusions of this experiment are that the management team should play a collaborative role instead of a commanding role.
Mrs. Mary Parker Follett presented her managerial ideas from a psychological point of view. Hence the coordination process gained more importance. He said that it is necessary to create an atmosphere of affection, cooperation and harmony between workers and managers. Workers should be treated in such a way as to show interest in work and attachment to the factory. Managers should always be ready to do things in the interest of the workers, understand their problems and try to solve them. He asserted that workers should be “participated in management and discussed with him in an open and open atmosphere. This reduces antagonism and increases mutual trust.
Chester Barnard published the book “The Functions of the Executive” based on hisexperience. In it, he elaborated the importance of the sociological side of management. He emphasized the concept of authority, the importance of communication, the need for informal organization and emotional motivation. The priority of human behavior in industrial management. Contributors also include thinkers such as Kurt Lewin, Khis Argeris, Lesis Likert, McGregor, Herbert Simon. The thinkers who gave importance to human relations gave importance to mental factors as well as physical factors. Therefore, the work done by these thinkers in the context of management development is definitely important.
The period after 1960 AD is called the modern period. During this period, a new system of thought emerged in management science called Systeins Approach. The word system is derived from the Greek word which means to bring together or unite, a methodical approach is to bring together interrelated systems to achieve specific goals. Today, this new approach has gained an important place in management science. The human body is made up of various organs.