Grant Wahl, 48, collapsed as extra time began in the Argentina-Netherlands game on Friday night.
Last month Mr Wahl was briefly detained by Qatari authorities for trying to enter a stadium wearing a rainbow shirt, in support of LGBT rights.
Fans of soccer and journalism of the highest quality knew we could always count on Grant to deliver insightful
In a tweet, Mr Wahl's wife, Céline Gounder, said she was in "complete shock", adding that she was "so thankful" for the support she had received from friends.
FIFA President Gianni Infantino said Mr Wahl's love for football was "immense
Major League Soccer commissioner Don Garber tweeted: "We are shocked, saddened and heartbroken over the tragic passing of Grant Wahl.
A spokesperson for the Qatari body responsible for planning the World Cup, the Supreme Committee for Delivery & Legacy, said
We are in touch with the US Embassy and relevant local authorities to ensure the process of repatriating the body is in accordance with the family's wishes."
Earlier this week, Mr Wahl was presented with an award by Brazilian football legend Ronaldo for reporting on eight consecutive World Cups